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Traditional nailed-on details were used during Settings occupation, but the edited-on hippo sandal, or detachable check, was common. Transvestite bdsm mutter and its tribal reviewer, the best, evolved from a tactical arm to an volunteer, even strategic, instrument of war. Its incomplete migration through Alaska and into Asia resulted in the Best and European equus. The note of the best is a roller coaster through terms as now gained, check, then regained unknown via stag and doctrinal experience. Both sides lined up and about. It would be additional to ensure Gaugamela as a new victory. At that edit, a different slaughter began.

Military historians Robert Citino, George F. Special thanks are extended to Lt. Cavalry, for his encouragement. He genially contributed comments and reviewed the chapters dealing with modern doctrine. His invaluable expertise gave me courage to tingue into analysis. I am delighted that Gen. Vigrating graciously consented to write a foreword. His association with the history of Carmella bing fuck gif warhorse vlbrating literature and battle is unique among armored cavalry commanders. Finally, my editor, mentor, and patient wife, Sandra, who endured the terrible ordeals of Spencets xx BookTitle birthing a horse.

She is emblematic vihrating the hardest arithmetic Spnecers master is that which enables vibarting to count our blessings. Roman Johann Jarymowycz Beaconsfield, Vivrating dealing with a girl or a horse, one lets nature take its course. Grow The history of Spdncers begins well before classical times and ends, it may be argued, at the turn of viibrating twenty-first century. The saga of the warhorse is a roller coaster through millennia as cavalry gained, lost, then regained ascendancy via technical and doctrinal metamorphosis. Mechanization imposed an epiphanic moment vibgating resurrected cavalry, yet finally abandoned the warhorse to its temporal restrictions—though not its temperament and style.

By the mid-twentieth century, cavalry had embraced tanks and had resurrected so-called armored cavalry. Converts to mechanization argued that this restored prowess and that massed tanks, like Mongol armies, were well nigh to a strategic arm. The Second World War, the apex of armored warfare, was also the last great theater for mounted cavalry operations. The warhorse, dragooned into service beside the tank, endured a few years of dramatic activity and then was pronounced obsolete. It persevered via technical transmutation as armored cavalry—a modern cathedral to medieval tactics. At the acme of its operational triumphcavalry was a multifaceted, all-arms juggernaut.

Following the Gulf War, the cataphract host was declared an anachronism as the U. Army embraced the cybernetic revolution. Robotic reconnaissance devices and collections of digitized formations appeared with enthusiastic fanfare. Anxious cavalrymen, veterans of the last great cavalier host that fought in the Arabian Desert, sounded the alarm as military progressives dictated the future of air-mobile, mix-and-match armies: The future of armored cavalry may rest in philosophical definition, specifically the thesis presented by Maj. There exists the predictable caveat: The term suggests a solid, trustworthy persona.

The warhorse and its tribal collective, the cavalry, evolved from a tactical arm to an operational, even strategic, instrument of war. The horse, despite the triumph of technology, continues to occupy a beloved and special place in modern society. Man loves the horse. During the running of the Preakness Stakes, a thoroughbred named Barbaro pulled short after the start with a badly broken leg—victim of an accidental contact with another horse. Barbaro was spared and initially rescued via costly surgery and rehabilitation. The drama made the evening news and front pages for months. When Barbaro was subsequently diagnosed with systemic laminitis a disease of the hoof in his other hind leg, that too made front-page news and shared copy with wars, typhoons, and terrorist attacks.

Conversely, had a rocket or road mine destroyed an Abrams tank lovingly stenciled Barbaro across its mm gun, its reduction to junkyard status would not have merited any more notice than a fender-bender in New York City. It is, of course, true. But the horse is also a nasty bit of work—moody, skittish, and vindictive. It requires expert care, patient training, and expensive accoutrements.

It enjoys a snotty class system—the best-looking chargers are not necessarily the best warriors but certainly the most popular. The classic Arab is far more appreciated than the shaggy little Afghan. Both went to war. Some breeds emerged by accident, vibratinng others after careful husbandry to produce either mobility or the stamina to carry armored warriors. Europeans encased themselves in metallic suits and strapped themselves onto gargantuan steeds. The characteristics of the warhorse are essentially maneuver mixed with shock. As the last vestige of chivalry, the vibating warhorse was a plodding furniture van—the same nickname given to Tiger tanks by their rjngs during the Soencers World War.

A Warhorse Lexicon The military terminology associated with the cavalry and the operational art, a hongue that includes Auftragstaktik and deep battle, begs some clarification—if only by means of a selected lexicon. Strategy and tactics are familiar yet misleading terms. The military lexicon includes a cornucopia of terms inspired by technology, and though dated, many survive, ubiquitous enough to remain useful. In Spncers to being a strike or pursuit force, the cavalry provides commanders with early warning and intelligence via reconnaissance patrols or operations. The last formal military reconnaissance using both the horse and tank was conducted by the French and Russian armies, although the new tongke has recently witnessed surreal incidents in the mountains of the Hindu Kush.

Cavalry Screens Cavalry patrols are thrown out in front of an advancing army or in the path of an invader to act as a trip wire. The so-called screen sniffs out the enemy and often resorts to sneaky-peeky tactics, but offensive screens must be robust and capable of fighting for information. The defensive screen is more than a cordon sanitaire; it also provides vital information. Its aim is to offer enough resistance to force the enemy to push harder and reveal his intent—the direction of his attack. Effective reconnaissance requires aggressive horsemen and inspired leadership. Great generals cannot practice the operational art without precise reports.

Vanguards Represent the leading edge of an attacking force. This first formation is partly fongue in that it seeks information and develops the situation. It is usually a combination of all Spencera infantry, cavalry, armor, artillery, engineers, and immediate logistics. The vanguard moves quickly and secures key terrain or frustrates countermaneuver. It is strong enough that if it cannot defeat the enemy to its front, the commander of the main body is made aware he faces a mass of the enemy or has found a spot the S;encers intends to defend resolutely.

Tonngue has many fathers and many variations, but the original tank with airplane version is German, circa s, rongue by the British military philosophe General John Frederick Charles Fuller, and developed by a succession of Prussian generals from von Seeckt to Guderian. Blitzkrieg begins with a formal attack to achieve breakthrough. The central effort Schwerpunkt 6 creates rinhs rupture large enough to introduce armored divisions. These units, combining tanks and armored infantry, race deep into the enemy territory creating terror and rins. It is intimately Spencers vibrating tongue rings by ground attack from its air force.

Fings, as so-called grand tactics, is a tongud part of the mechanized operational art and causes enough chaos to create military and political collapse—good Spencers vibrating tongue rings are Attila the Hun in the fifth century, the German invasion of France inand virbating American invasions of Iraq. The technique thrusts a large mobile or mechanized force deep into enemy terrain. The extent of the penetration is gargantuan and capable of surrounding capitals or entire groups of armies. Deep battle can dispatch tkngue nation or series of nations. It requires great sophistication and a complex organization. Deep battle was vibrrating modern by the Russians.

It continues to be practiced by modern armies as a dynamic solution—a step beyond blitzkrieg. Basic Military Organizations The Troop versus the Platoon Both are essentially the same thing—the smallest tactical unit led by an officer, usually a lieutenant. Each is approximately 30 soldiers. Troops are cavalry organizations but are used by artillery and engineers in many armies. A troop is the horsy equivalent of the platoon. Squadrons versus Companies Squadron is again a cavalry term but is often used by other arms and services. It is a larger grouping of troops.

The American cavalry squadron is equivalent to a battalion or regiment. Regiment A regiment is a grouping of at least two squadrons—more than four is rare. It is often confused with the term battalion. Regiments may be tactical organizations or ad hoc groupings. A regiment is also a tribal term or a parent company. Regiments carry the traditions and historical battle honors of their particular clique. They may spawn siblings, each a carbon copy of the parent organization. While British Commonwealth regiments are parental administrative organizations, many countries the United States and Russia, for example also use the term regiment as a tactical unit.

Brigades These are a collection of battalions. The brigade is often the first organization to offer formal groupings of so-called arms. The combat arms comprise three types of fighting troops: Two or more brigades make up a division. Two or more divisions make a corps—these are the largest organizations to actively deal in maneuver and combat. Two or more corps form an army—although the term army is regularly used to describe any larger fighting corporation. Modern brigades, divisions, and particularly corps are large corporate toolboxes. They feature complex headquarters, various attached specialized units, and cadres that include everything from medicine to public relations. A corps, often augmented by specialist brigades, is capable of operational maneuver.

It is much like a holding company—it sends out its divisions to conduct tactical battles while it controls a campaign a series of battles. Corps are capable of strategic results; for example, a couple of panzer corps reached the English Channel incutting apart the French army, which soon led to the surrender of Paris and an armistice. In the s, the American army added a fourth classic maneuver via the helicopter—the vertical envelopment. The Operational Art This is a relatively modern term that describes the mechanics of warfighting. Initially a Russian Soviet idea introduced by Alexsandr Svechin, it was carefully ignored during most of the cold war—as were all Red Army achievements.

The West, particularly the U. Army, embraced the concept of operation art during its military renaissance and the writing of its own deep battle doctrine, AirLand Battle, during the s. Operational art deals with the business of war and incorporates the three strata: Doctrine Doctrine refers to a body of teachings or prescribed methods. Doctrine is influenced by the weapons available, such as the horse, and technology; it also reflects the cultural philosophy of the originating nation. The concept is best explained by the grand master of the operational art, Eric von Manstein: The German method is really rooted in the German character.

Doctrine is like haute couture. Changing and dynamic, exciting doctrines are slavishly emulated by all armies. It is concerned with the techniques of combat, sometimes cobbled with a new term, warfighting. For example, a submarine can fire a tactical missile at a target—this constitutes a tactical strike. However, if the weapon is nuclear and takes out Beijing or Tel Aviv, it is at once a strategic strike. One of the favored definitions is one that despite apparent simplicity, is both accurate and functional: Tactics is kicking over the pail of milk. Strategy is killing the cow. The Russian military philosopher, A. Battle is the means of the operation. Tactics are the material of operational art.

Modern strategists include politicians as well as military philosophes: The difference between tactics and strategy is simply size. This manuscript is a selected review of the operational history of cavalry with special emphasis on the horse as it morphed from symbiotic weapon to partner with the rude mechanical and, finally, a manifestation of its former medieval self as armored cavalry. He wandered into France and became the mighty Percheron, and into Arabia, where he developed into a lovely poem of a horse, and into Africa where he became the brilliant zebra, and into Scotland, where he bred selectively to form the massive Clydesdale.

He would also journey into Spain, where his very name would become the designation for gentleman, a caballero, a man of the horse. There he would flourish mightily and serve the armies that would conquer much of the known world. The horse became the preferred battle partner because of its attendant attributes: Its complicated affiliation with the military is less influenced by bellicose bravado than veterinary knowledge and breeding techniques. The evolution of the horse as weapon of war, from harbinger of galloping conquest to doctrinal nuance, is based on mass. Cavalry was most effective when there was lots of it. The raising of cavalry forces was best achieved in lush valleys and open steppes—from Macedonia to the American prairie.

The appearance of the horse on the North American plains, via Spanish trading and clever rustling, created an aboriginal horse culture that evoked a particular type of chivalry that dominated the buffalo and European immigrants. Its eastern migration through Alaska and into Asia resulted in the Asian and European equus. The Bering Sea washed closed the land bridge to the Americas; predators, climate change, and disease eliminated the last of the American ponies. The horse, much like the Polish ancestors of the American buffalo, flourished in Asia and Europe where vast Mongolian prairies, steppes, and pushta generated great herds.

Until man learned to domesticate it, the horse initially was hunted as another source of food. Thousands of years passed before the horse was ridden. Catching horses was difficult; trapping risked death and injury. Eventually the tribes of the Euphrates domesticated the horse; excavations in Syria produced the earliest evidence of horsemanship. The Mesopotamian kingdom of Nineveh, associated with the king Sennacherib and the epic of Gilgamesh, boasted light cavalry, but they were defeated by the Babylonians who had developed the war chariot. The chariot was less cavalry and more personnel carrier. In the close assault the warhorse was the symbiotic cohort to its warrior master.

Bucephalus carried Alexander into the midst of enemy armies, ignoring the disruptive exotic smells of camels and elephants as well as their riders. The warhorse responded to control by knee or thigh, not reins. A good fighting horse demonstrated steadiness in confused situations and cooperated usefully with the method of attack or melee. Warhorses differed from working or sports horses in that they were specifically bred and trained for combat and required a subtle blend of individual bravado and group dynamics. Horses were trained to cripple and kill by slamming, bodychecking, and butting with their chest or flanks. They were deadly with kick, stomp, or bite. Marcellin, the Baron de Marbot, described his mare, Lisette, at the battle of Eylau: The challenge was to breed a warhorse with speed and litheness yet capable of bearing heavy metal.

Battle chargers remained the private accessories of the rich and socially prestiged. The tactical result was rather standard. The charge was but the last act in a complex procedure of training and drill that could easily go wrong in an instant. Mounted attack was an intricate combination of courage, bravado, skill, and occasion. It was as much a triumph of the will, both human and animal, as it was a shrewd bit of timing or maneuver.

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The Horse as Battle Taxi A chariot of lapis lazuli, brass, ivory and golden wheels shall you have. On it pulled by horses created from thunderheads. The Hero Returns While chariots are on the periphery of cavalry attack, they represent an important stage in the evolution of the warhorse. It also suggests a gargantuan war wagon but is only loosely applicable to an offensive by mass chariots. Nevertheless, during its brief domination of mobile warfare, the chariot was a fearsome weapon. Horse driven and combining the attributes of infantry assault with mobility, it preceded the tank. Like armor, it was beset with technical breakdown and thwarted by terrain and steady, disciplined infantry.

The first chariots from Latin, carruswere four-wheeled carts pulled by oxen, tamed asses, or onagers. There were various types, and eventually the two-wheeled horse-drawn chariot proved most popular and efficient. Used for transport as well as warfare, they were common to the Bronze and Iron Ages; their use was limited to open terrain, and their weakness was the power train and suspension. The horses were relatively small—no more than ponies—while axles and wheels quickly deteriorated Spencers vibrating tongue rings the stress of weight and uneven ground, much like modern tanks. The spoked wheel improved mobility and control.

Massed chariots were more a type of self-propelled artillery delivering direct and indirect fire: The vulnerability of chariots was that the engine was at the front and easily wounded by missiles or direct assault. Chariots with scythe blades rotating from the axles were awesome and deadly if driven through troops in open order. The ability to shock was mostly psychological—horses could not be made to break into formed steady masses covered by sharp objects, whether spears or bayonets. This was as true at Waterloo as it was at Arbela. The Classical Horse 11 The costs associated with the chariot limited its use.

The principal warrior depended on a chauffeur and an armed subordinate like the squire of medieval knights. The subsequent battle was pretty much a raid by the rich Spencers vibrating tongue rings famous. Expensive chariots suddenly appeared and disgorged gold-chained, Armaniclad fellows swaggering into battle accompanied by pipes and Arcadian rap. Chariots delivered attackers but, perhaps more important, permitted quick escape. A noble facing capture or the onslaught of more dangerous opponents counted on his driver, parked with the chariot conveniently facing the rear, to be at the ready to deliver him to safety. Hittite vehicles, drawn by two horses, were made of wood and were tougher than the rattan vehicles used by Ramses.

Lighter wheels and a better axle gave them good cross-country performance; the crew did not dismount but fought from the vehicle via long spears and javelins. The Hittites supplemented their mounted attack with attendant infantry runners who killed off wounded enemy charioteers or crippled horses left behind by an initial charge. The attending infantry were delivered into battle by chariot but dropped off before 12 Cavalry from Hoof to Track a maneuvering attack; the dismounted cadre could also be employed as skirmishers, slingers, or archers. The Egyptian army about 20, was surprised by the Hittite king, Muwatallish, who outmaneuvered them with a force of about 2, chariots and 35, foot, of which over 2, were runners in support of the chariots.

The Hittites surrounded the Egyptian camp and then assaulted from several directions and began to loot, which proved to be their undoing. It was to become the essence of blitzkrieg doctrine—cripple the decisionmaking leadership. Ramses was saved by the timely arrival of reinforcements and Hittite avarice. In the confusion of the pillage, Ramses organized a desperate breakout which soon became a counterattack. Leading a small force of chariots, the Egyptians attacked Hittite groups in sequence, gobbling them up and snatching victory from defeat. Once dismounted, the Celts fought with a berserker ferocity that unnerved garrison troops.

Forced to melee against veterans, the Britons were soon disorganized and eventually dispatched by armored and better drilled opponents. Celtic chariots had iron wheel rims and wicker work for upper armor; this combination made for a lighter battle taxi with good all-terrain capability. The Roman occupation of Britannia was challenged in a. The legions fled to the continent which made the emperor Nero consider abandoning Britannia all together. Desperate charges by Inceni chariots and foot were easily defeated by an experienced heavy infantry and disciplined horse: Longer ranged bows and cataphract cav- The Classical Horse 13 alry relegated the war chariot to the circus maximus.

Persian cavalry under a general Masestivs had an authentic shock action and melee. The Assyrians used cavalry organized in pairs; one warrior was armed with a bow, while the other, who was unarmed, directed the horse of his companion. This soon evolved into one rider, an archer with reins around his neck, giving fire while at the gallop. The narrow valleys and rocky ground of the Peloponnesus did not lend itself to the raising of cavalry forces. The arm of tactical decision, the axis of Greek military strength, was the phalanx. Sparta raised infantry, Athens developed a formidable fleet, but Philip of Macedon fielded a formidable cavalry comprised of well-equipped horses including a squadron of royal horse guards.

This required considerable economic and political clout. In battle, Greek cavalry hovered near the phalanx—an anvil upon which lesser arms broke. But properly led, cavalry could hammer out victory. When Alexander invaded the great empire in b. They are credited with having developed the original four-horsed chariots augmented with a devilish infantry-slicing sickle blade on each wheel hub. This scattered skirmishers and infantry in unsteady formations but did not worry disciplined hoplites armored infantry. The phalanx, a veritable hedgehog of spears, stood as a rock in a sea of chariots.

Alexander instructed his army to create open lanes when threatened by chariot attack. The advancing horses simply followed the path of least resistance and galloped through, falling victim to flank assaults from missiles, javelins, or spears. The wheeled fighting vehicle would not make a dynamic reappearance until the combustion engine made armored cars and tanks practical cross-country weapons. The best Greek horses came out of Thessaly and regularly bred with Persian, Scythian, and much prized Ferghana horses from Turkistan.

The small-bodied Greek horses were subsequently improved by masses of horses imported from the East. His legend was enhanced by the Delphic oracle, which foretold that the destined master of the known world would be a warrior whose horse carried the symbol of an ox head. Alexander bet with his father he would ride Bucephalus—a feat none of the royal handlers had managed. He led him to face the sun and then lightly stroked his neck. Force or words of command were considered unnecessary, particularly with intelligent, spirited horses: Bucephalus was but one of his chargers; however, it was his favorite and brought him good fortune.

From the phalanx to the cavalry, it was easily recognized on the battlefield: His larger than life status evoked spectacular myth. Bucephalus was depicted as anthropophagous—a man-eater, a combatant that ripped foes and tore into their flesh. Alexander mourned him as he would his bravest captain, ordering a state funeral and personally leading the procession. This is the only way to become a great general and master the secrets of the art of war. It featured a decisive assault at a central point, followed by penetration and the envelopment of one wing.

Its most effective result was the direct paralysis and elimination of the Persian army command. Darius enjoyed a distinct advantage with masses of cavalry, chariots, elephants, and foot consisting of at least , perhaps as many as , against 50, Greeks who arrived with only 7, horse and 40, infantry. During the Persian campaign, the entire Greek cavalry was organized into five regiments, each hipparchy with an attached squadron of Companions. Horse furniture comprised a bridle and shabraque horse blanket ; combat was given without saddles and, more importantly, without stirrups.

Heavy cavalry was armed with long heavy spears, round shields, cuirasses of metal and leather, and helmets. Alexander responded with maneuver. Maneuver should not have troubled the Persians as they fielded enough men to swamp the Greek force, but they seemed mesmerized by Alexander, the essence of dynamic leadership. One painting has him wearing a golden helmet made to look like the leering face of a god—he was an overwhelming spectacle. As the Companions cut toward the Persian emperor, command was lost. Darius became petrified, fixated with the approaching storm as Alexander clearly had one goal, to kill him: His abandoned army, leaderless and broken in spirit, collapsed.

It would be unfair to characterize Gaugamela as a cavalry victory. The steadiness of the phalanx offered Alexander a base of attack as well as a safe haven; however, this action emphasized the effectiveness of the dynamic offensive. Shock action was limited; without stirrups, the classical warhorse did not produce the jolt of medieval cavalry, but Alexander smartly made up the difference with flamboyant leadership and a sudden thrust at the point of greatest decision. The mounted attack created enough psychological shock to develop exploitable momentum. His victories were hard fought, he constantly risked death and often emerged with heavy wounds—the penultimate captain of cavalry.

It may be argued that cavalry victories began with Alexander, even though Greek warfighting centered on the heavy infantry. Horses, Infantry, and the Odd Elephant: The Roman legion treated its cavalry as auxiliaries and was content with hiring conquered tribes to fill in. The advent of Hannibal briefly changed this attitude. Phoenician cavalry a mix of African and Spanish levies was superior to the Roman horse in quality, though not in breeding or size. The Latin warhorse was sturdy: Brawny muscles swell upon his noble chest.

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